That notwithstanding, the Starfleet ethos, exists after the fact. If you pull up the writer’s guide for both of the series, Starfleet is barely mentioned. It has since been chalked up to be the Space UN and the “ethos” argument is largely based upon the idea that the organization is somehow infallible.
Starting with the Pahvo episodes, I think that Discovery has had the Star Trek ethos most of the time (but not all of the time). To me, it was Picard that was lacking the Star Trek ethos most of the time.
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